Accessed 7/23/2020. In: StatPearls. 2017;96(12):797-804. Other possible causes of melasma include: Melasma causes light brown, dark brown, and/or bluish patches or freckle-like spots on your skin. It’s an organ – the largest organ – and it makes up about one-seventh of your body weight. 2018;31(4):461-465. doi:10.1111/pcmr.12684, Rivas S, Pandya AG. Am Fam Physician. Jadotte YT, Schwartz RA. However, to keep your skin healthy in general, try a skin-healthy diet of foods rich in Vitamin D: Those with melasma are more likely to have a thyroid disease. If hormonal changes, such as those that occur during pregnancy or while taking birth control pills, have caused melasma, it will fade after delivery or once a person stops taking the pills. Pregnant women have increased levels of the hormones estrogen and progesterone. There are two main causes of melasma: radiation, whether ultraviolet, visible light, or infrared (heat) light; and hormones. This article looks at what causes Melasma and how you can reduce the appearance of dark patches on your skin. U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2014;4(5). 2014;89(5):771-782. doi:10.1590/abd1806-4841.20143063. Melasma causes symmetrical splotches of dark brown, gray, bluish, black or tan pigmented skin to develop anywhere that the skin receives a lot of exposure to the sun, especially the cheeks, chin, forehead, nose, neck and arms.cause: There are no other systemic symptoms associated with melasma. Melasma is a common skin condition. skin condition characterized by the development of the brownish patch on the skin of the face Between 1.5% and 33% of the population may get melasma and it happens more often during a woman’s reproductive years, and rarely happens during puberty. The physical changes during puberty for males that occur are different in a number of ways. Plensdorf S, Livieratos M, Dada N. Pigmentation Disorders: Diagnosis and Management. The prevalence of melasma and its association with quality of life in adult male Latino migrant workers. Pregnant women get melasma more often than anyone else. The condition is more common in women with darker skin phototypes (including those of Hispanic and Asian descent). They can appear as flat patches or freckle-like spots. Some people have melasma for years or their entire lives. Am Fam Physician. Diagnosis Since there are other skin disorders that display the same characteristic appearance like melasma it … In fact, melasma can affect any part of your skin that is exposed to sunlight. It normally appears as large dark patches on the face although other parts of the body can be affected. Accessed 7/23/20. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. Melasma is a very common skin disorder, especially among pregnant women. Melasma (also known as chloasma faciei,: 854 or the mask of pregnancy when present in pregnant women) is a tan or dark skin discoloration.Melasma is thought to be caused by sun exposure, genetic predisposition, hormone changes, and skin irritation. The developments that a boy undergoes during adolescence are: In boys, the scrotum and the testicles start to grow when they reach puberty. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. Melasma is rarely seen before puberty and most commonly occurs in women during their reproductive years. Ann Dermatol. Barsh G. What Controls Variation in Skin Color? Melasma most often occurs in women. Cestari TF, Dantas LP, Boza JC. Melasma is a typically chronic disorder. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing; 2019. Recent progress in melasma pathogenesis. The brain undergoes extensive structural changes during adolescence, concurrent to puberty-related physical and hormonal changes. particularly during pregnancy (when up to 50% of women may be affected). You’re also at risk if you take oral contraceptives and hormones. Melasma can appear on the forehead, cheeks, nose, and chin and above upper lips and other body parts like forearms and neck. It’s also called chloasma, or the “mask of pregnancy,” when it occurs in pregnant women. At this time, your ovaries have begun to make the hormone estrogen. According to the Mayo Clinic and the American Academy of Dermatology, melasma has four main causes: excessive exposure to the ultraviolet rays in sunlight; a high circulating blood concentration of the hormones estrogen and progesterone; the inheritance of a predisposition for the disorder; and a skin-care product that irritates the skin and results in an excessive production of melanocytes, the skin's pigment-producing cells. Women are more likely to get melasma than men: about 10% of those who get melasma are men, 90% women. Commonly affected areas include your face, including the cheeks, upper lip and forehead, as well as the forearms. Shankar K, Godse K, Aurangabadkar S, et al. In boys, the main sex hormone is testosterone. Policy, Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. 2009;48(1):22-26. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2009.03778.x. StatPearls: Melasma. What increases my risk for melasma? Sometimes the patches can become red or inflamed. Melasma: a clinical and epidemiological review. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. However, the American Academy of Dermatology reports that many doctors will conduct a small skin biopsy to test the skin's epithelial cells and confirm that the discoloration is due to melasma. 2019;5(1):30-36. doi:10.1016/j.ijwd.2018.09.004, Handa S, De D, Khullar G, Radotra BD, Sachdeva N. The clinicoaetiological, hormonal and histopathological characteristics of melasma in men. Skin-lightening agents, particularly hydroquinone 2-4%. It sometimes affects your arms, neck and back. 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